Article 1 : Definitions

(1)  “Charter” means the European Energy Charter adopted in the Concluding Document of the Hague Conference on the European Energy Charter signed at The Hague on 17 December 1991; signature of the Concluding Document is considered to be signature of the Charter.

(2) “Contracting Party” means a state or Regional Economic Integration Organisation which has consented to be bound by this Treaty and for which the Treaty is in force

(3) “Regional Economic Integration Organisation” means an organisation constituted by states to which they have transferred competence over certain matters a number of which are governed by this Treaty, including the authority to take decisions binding on them in respect of those matters.

(4) “Energy Materials and Products”, based on the Harmonised System of the World Customs Organization and the Combined Nomenclature of the European Communities, means the items included in Annexes EM I or EM II.

(4 bis) “Energy-Related Equipment”, based on the Harmonised System of the World Customs Organization, means the items included in Annexes EQ I or EQ II.

(5) “Economic Activity in the Energy Sector” means an economic activity concerning the exploration, extraction, refining, production, storage, land transport, transmission, distribution, trade, marketing, or sale of Energy Materials and Products except those included in Annex NI, or concerning the distribution of heat to multiple premises.

(a)  It is understood that the Treaty confers no rights to engage in economic activities other than Economic Activities in the Energy Sector.

(b)  The following activities are illustrative of Economic Activity in the Energy Sector:

  • (i)  prospecting and exploration for, and extraction of, e.g., oil, gas, coal and uranium;
  • (ii) construction and operation of power generation facilities, including those powered by wind and other renewable energy sources;
  • (iii) land transportation, distribution, storage and supply of Energy Materials and Products, e.g., by way of transmission and distribution grids and pipelines or dedicated rail lines, and construction of facilities for such, including the laying of oil, gas, and coal-slurry pipelines;
  • (iv)  removal and disposal of wastes from energy related facilities such as power stations, including radioactive wastes from nuclear power stations;
  • (v)  decommissioning of energy related facilities, including oil rigs, oil re neries and power generating plants;
  • (vi)  marketing and sale of, and trade in Energy Materials and Products, e.g., retail sales of gasoline; and
  • (vii)  research, consulting, planning, management and design activities related to the activities mentioned above, including those aimed at Improving Energy Efficiency.

(6) “Investment” means every kind of asset, owned or controlled directly or indirectly by an Investor and includes:

  • (a)  tangible and intangible, and movable and immovable, property, and any property rights such as leases, mortgages, liens, and pledges;
  • (b)  a company or business enterprise, or shares, stock, or other forms of equity participation in a company or business enterprise, and bonds and other debt of a company or business enterprise;
  • (c)  claims to money and claims to performance pursuant to contract having an economic value and associated with an Investment;
  • (d)  Intellectual Property;
  • (e)  Returns;
  • (f)  any right conferred by law or contract or by virtue of any licences and permits granted pursuant to law to undertake any Economic Activity in the Energy Sector.

A change in the form in which assets are invested does not affect their character as investments and the term “Investment” includes all investments, whether existing at or made after the later of the date of entry into force of this Treaty for the Contracting Party of the Investor making the investment and that for the Contracting Party in the Area of which the investment is made (hereinafter referred to as the “Effective Date”) provided that the Treaty shall only apply to matters affecting such investments after the Effective Date.

“Investment” refers to any investment associated with an Economic Activity in the Energy Sector and to investments or classes of investments designated by a Contracting Party in its Area as “Charter efficiency projects” and so notified to the Secretariat.

For greater clarity as to whether an Investment made in the Area of one Contracting Party is controlled, directly or indirectly, by an Investor of any other Contracting Party, control of an Investment means control in fact, determined after an examination of the actual circumstances in each situation. In any such examination, all relevant factors should be considered, including the Investor’s

  • (a) financial interest, including equity interest, in the Investment;
  • (b) ability to exercise substantial in influence over the management and operation of the Investment; and
  • (c)  ability to exercise substantial in influence over the selection of members of the board of directors or any other managing body.

Where there is doubt as to whether an Investor controls, directly or indirectly, an Investment, an Investor claiming such control has the burden of proof that such control exists.

The Russian Federation wishes to have reconsidered, in negotiations with regard to the supplementary treaty referred to in Article 10(4), the question of the importance of national legislation with respect to the issue of control as expressed in the Understanding to Article 1(6).

(7)  “Investor” means:

(a)  with respect to a Contracting Party:

  • (i)  a natural person having the citizenship or nationality of or who is permanently residing in that Contracting Party in accordance with its applicable law;
  • (ii)  a company or other organisation organised in accordance with the law applicable in that Contracting Party;

(b)  with respect to a “third state”, a natural person, company or other organisation which ful ls, mutatis mutandis, the conditions speci ed in subparagraph (a) for a Contracting Party.

(8) “Make Investments” or “Making of Investments” means establishing new Investments, acquiring all or part of existing Investments or moving into different fields of Investment activity.

Consistent with Australia’s foreign investment policy, the establishment of a new mining or raw materials processing project in Australia with total investment of $A 10 million or more by a foreign interest, even where that foreign interest is already operating a similar business in Australia, is considered as the making of a new investment

(9) “Returns” means the amounts derived from or associated with an Investment, irrespective of the form in which they are paid, including profits, dividends, interest, capital gains, royalty payments, management, technical assistance or other fees and payments in kind.

(10) “Area” means with respect to a state that is a Contracting Party:

  • (a) the territory under its sovereignty, it being understood that territory includes land, internal waters and the territorial sea; and
  • (b) subject to and in accordance with the international law of the sea: the sea, sea-bed and its subsoil with regard to which that Contracting Party exercises sovereign rights and jurisdiction.

With respect to a Regional Economic Integration Organisation which is a Contracting Party, Area means the Areas of the member states of such Organisation, under the provisions contained in the agreement establishing that Organisation.

(11)

(a) “WTO” means the World Trade Organization established by the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization. 

(b) “WTO Agreement” means the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, its Annexes and the decisions, declarations and understandings related thereto, as subsequently rectified, amended and modified from time to time.

(c) “GATT 1994” means the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade as specified in Annex 1A to the Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, as subsequently rectified, amended or modified from time to time.

(12) “Intellectual Property” includes copyrights and related rights, trademarks, geographical indications, industrial designs, patents, layout designs of integrated circuits and the protection of undisclosed information.

The representatives recognise the necessity for adequate and effective protection of Intellectual Property rights according to the highest internationally-accepted standards.

(13)

(a) “Energy Charter Protocol” or “Protocol” means a treaty, the negotiation of which is authorised and the text of which is adopted by the Charter Conference, which is entered into by two or more Contracting Parties in order to complement, supplement, extend or amplify the provisions of this Treaty with respect to any specific sector or category of activity within the scope of this Treaty, or to areas of cooperation pursuant to Title III of the Charter.

(b) “Energy Charter Declaration” or “Declaration” means a nonbinding instrument, the negotiation of which is authorised and the text of which is approved by the Charter Conference, which is entered into by two or more Contracting Parties to complement or supplement the provisions of this Treaty

(14) “Freely Convertible Currency” means a currency which is widely traded in international foreign exchange markets and widely used in international transactions.

 

Evolution of Article 1:

Basic Protocol (20/08/91):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1(a) – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.1(b) – Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.1(d) – Definitions and Article 8 – Non-Discrimination
Article 1(6): Article 1.1(e) - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.1(f) – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.1(g) – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.1(i) – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.1(h) – Definitions + Article 3 – Core Protocols + Article 4 – Supplementary Protocols
BP 2 (11/09/91):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1(a) – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.1(b) – Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.1(d) – Definitions and Article 10 – Non-Discrimination
Article 1(6): Article 1.1(e) - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.1(f) – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.1(g) – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.1(i) – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.1(h) – Definitions + Article 3 – Core Protocols + Article 4 – Supplementary Protocols
BA 4 (31/10/91):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.3 – Definitions and Annex II – Draft paper for further discussion in WG II on definition of Energy Materials and Products
Article 1(6): Article 1.4 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.5 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.6 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.8 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 4 – Protocols
BA 6 (21/01/92):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.3 – Definitions
Article 1(6): Article 1.4 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.5 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.6 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.8 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.9 – Definitions
BA 12 (09/04/92) - BA 14 (24/06/92):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.3 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 1.13 - Definitions 
Article 1(6): Article 1.4 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.6 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.8 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.10 + 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.12 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.15 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.16 – Definitions
BA-15 (12/08/92):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.3 – Definitions
Article 1(6): Article 1.4 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.5 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.6 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.8 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.9 + 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.12 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.13 – Definitions
BA-22 (21/10/92):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Specific comment to Article 1.2
Article 1(4): Article 1.3 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Para 2 of Annex 1 to Article 16.10 – Promotion, Protection and Treatment of Investments 
Article 1(6): Article 1.4 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.5 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.6 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.8 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.12 – Definitions
BA-26 (25/11/92):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Specific comment to Article 1.2
Article 1(4): Article 1.3 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 16.10 – Promotion, Protection and Treatment of Investments
Article 1(6): Article 1.4 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.5 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.6 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.8 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.12 – Definitions
BA-31 (21/12/92):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Specific comment to Article 1.2 - Definition
Article 1(4): Article 1.3 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 1.4 – Definitions and Article 16.10 – Promotion, Protection and Treatment of Investments + Note for accompanying document
Article 1(6): Article 1.4 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.5 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.6 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.8 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.12 – Definitions
BA-35 (09/02/93):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Article 1.3 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 1.5 – Definitions and Article 16.10 – Promotion, Protection and Treatment of Investments + Note for accompanying document
Article 1(6): Article 1.5 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.6 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.8 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.12 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.13 – Definitions
BA-37 (01/03/93):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Article 1.3 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 1.5 – Definitions and Article 16.10 – Promotion, Protection and Treatment of Investments + Ministerial Declaration 1 – To Article 1(5)
Article 1(6): Article 1.5 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.6 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.8 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.12 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.13 – Definitions
(Compromise text) ECT 1 [CONF 50] (15/03/93):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Article 1.3 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 1.5 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 1 – To Article 1(5)
Article 1(6): Article 1.6 + 1.8 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.12 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.13 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.14 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.15 – Definitions
ECT 2 [CONF 56] (01/05/93):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Article 1.3 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 1.5 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 2 – To Article 1(5)    
Article 1(6): Article 1.6 + 1.8 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.12 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.13 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.14 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.15 – Definitions
ECT 3 [CONF 60] (01/06/93):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Article 1.3 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(4 bis): Par. 2 of General comment to Article 1(4)   
Article 1(5): Article 1.5 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 2 – To Article 1(5)    
Article 1(6): Article 1.6 + 1.8 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.12 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.13 – Definitions
Article 1(13): Article 1.14 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.15 – Definitions
ECT 4 [CONF 64] (07/07/93) - ECT 6 [CONF 82] (20/12/93):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Article 1.3 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 1.5 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 2 – To Article 1(5)    
Article 1(6): Article 1.6 - Definitions
Article 1(7): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.8 – Definitions
Article 1(9): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.12 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 3 – To Article 1(12)
Article 1(13): Article 1.13 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.14 – Definitions
ECT 7 (17/03/94):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Article 1.3 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(4 bis): Footnote 1.1 to Ministerial Declaration 
Article 1(5): Article 1.5 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 2 – To Article 1(5)    
Article 1(6): Article 1.6 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 3 – To Article 1(6)
Article 1(7): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.8 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 4 – To Article 1(8)
Article 1(9): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.12 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 5 – To Article 1(12)
Article 1(13): Article 1.13 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.14 – Definitions
Compromise text [CONF 98] (22/04/94):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Article 1.3 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 1.5 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 2 – To Article 1(5)    
Article 1(6): Article 1.6 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 3 – To Article 1(6)
Article 1(7): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.8 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 4 – To Article 1(8)
Article 1(9): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.12 – Definitions + Ministerial Declaration 5 – To Article 1(12)
Article 1(13): Article 1.13 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.14 – Definitions
Interim Text (20/06/94) - Interim Text (25/06/94):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Article 1.3 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 1.5 – Definitions + Understanding 2 – To Article 1(5)   
Article 1(6): Article 1.6 – Definitions + Understanding 3 – To Article 1(6) + Declaration 1 – To Article 1(6)
Article 1(7): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.8 – Definitions + Understanding 4 – To Article 1(8)
Article 1(9): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.12 – Definitions + Understanding 5 – To Article 1(12)
Article 1(13): Article 1.13 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.14 – Definitions
CONF 104 (Text for adoption) (14/09/94) - Final Act and ECT as adopted (17/12/94):
Article 1(1): Article 1.1 – Definitions
Article 1(2): Article 1.2 - Definitions
Article 1(3): Article 1.3 - Definitions
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(5): Article 1.5 – Definitions + Understanding 2 – With respect to Article 1(5)
Article 1(6): Article 1.6 – Definitions + Understanding 3 – With respect to Article 1(6) + Declaration 1 – With respect to Article 1(6)
Article 1(7): Article 1.7 – Definitions
Article 1(8): Article 1.8 – Definitions + Understanding 4 – With respect to Article 1(8)
Article 1(9): Article 1.9 – Definitions
Article 1(10): Article 1.10 – Definitions
Article 1(11): Article 1.11 – Definitions
Article 1(12): Article 1.12 – Definitions + Understanding 5 - With respect to Article 1(12)
Article 1(13): Article 1.13 – Definitions
Article 1(14): Article 1.14 – Definitions
CC 107 (03/12/1997) - ECT as amended (24/04/98):
Article 1(4): Article 1.4 – Definitions
Article 1(4 bis): Article 1.4bis – Definitions    
Article 1(11): Article 1.11 – Definitions

                                               

AES Corporation and Tau Power B.V. v. Republic of Kazakhstan, ICSID Case No. ARB/10/16

Award, 1 November 2013, paragraph 188

AES Summit Generation Limited and AES-Tisza Erömü Kft v. The Republic of Hungary, ICSID Case No. ARB/07/22

Award, 23 September 2010, paragraphs 6.25; 6.41-6.42

Alapli Elektrik B.V. v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/08/13

Excerpts of Award, 16 July 2012, paragraphs 337; 345-347; 350-360; 389-391; 402-404; 416-417

Dissenting Opinion of Marc Lalonde, 16 July 2012, paragraphs 3-6; 8-9; 12-25; 30; 37

Mohammad Ammar Al-Bahloul v. Republic of Tajikistan, SCC Case No. V064/2008 

Partial Award on Jurisdiction and Liability, 2 September 2009, Paragraphs 94; 139-131; 135; 137-146

Limited Liability Company Amto v. Ukraine, SCC Case No. 080/2005

Award, 26 March 2008, paragraph 43

Anatolie Stati, Gabriel Stati, Ascom Group S.A. and Terre Raf Trans Traiding Ltd v. Republic of Kazakhstan, SCC Case No. V116/2010

Award, 19 December 2013, paragraphs 742-743; 747; 806-813

Antin Infrastructure Services Luxembourg S.à.r.l. and Antin Energia Termosolar B.V. v. Kingdom of Spain(ICSID Case No. ARB/13/31)

Award, 15 June 2018, paragraphs 208-210; 217-221; 262-273

Blusun S.A., Jean-Pierre Lecorcier and Michael Stein v. Italian Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/14/3

Final Award, 27 December 2016, paragraph 263-271; 280-281; 308-309

Cem Cengiz Uzan v.  Republic of Turkey, SCC Case No. V 2014/023

Award on Respondent's Preliminary Objections, 20 April 2016, paragraphs 140-156; 165; 184-187

Cementownia "Nowa Huta" S.A. v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB(AF)/06/2

Award, 17 September 2009, paragraphs 116-149

Charanne and Construction Investments v. Spain, SCC Case No. V 062/2012

Award, 21 January 2016, paragraphs 414-418; 429-430

Eiser Infrastructure Limited and Energia Solar Luxembourg S.à.R.L. v. Kingdom of Spain, ICSID Case No. ARB/13/36 

Award, 4 May 2017, paragraphs 182, 190; 194-196; 223-231

Electrabel S.A. v. Republic of Hungary, ICSID Case No. ARB/07/19

Decision on Jurisdiction, Applicable law and Admissibility, 30 November 2012, paragraph 5.48-5.59

Energoalians SARL v. Republic of Moldova, UNCITRAL

Award, 23 October 2013, Paragraph 147-150; 153-155; 158-159; 201-211; 215-217; 225-227; 237-244; 251-252; 268-272

Dissenting Opinion of Dominic Pellew, 23 October 2013, paragraphs 8-9; 20-31; 38-48

Decision of the Paris Court of Appeal, 12 April 2016, page 4-6

Decision of the Cour de Cassation, 28 March 2018, page 2

State Enterprise "Energorynok" (Ukraine) v. The Republic of Moldova, SCC Arbitration V 2012/175

Final Award, 29 January 2015, paragraphs 79; 81-89

Eskosol S.p.A. in liquidazione v. Italian Republic, ICSID Case No. ARB/15/50

Decision on Respondent's Application under Rule 41(5), 20 March 2017, paragraphs 101-102

Greentech AS and others v Spain, SCC Arbitration V (2015/150)

Final Award, 14 November 2018, paragraphs 205-210; 347-350; 425-426

Hulley Enterprises Limited (Cyprus) v. Russian Federation, PCA Case No. AA 226

Interim Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility, 30 November 2009, paragraphs 385; 412-413; 430-432

Final Award, 18 July 2014, paragraphs 1349-1351; 1355, 1358-1363;1370-1372

Isolux Netherlands, BV v. Kingdom of Spain, SCC Case V2013/153

Final Award, 17 July 2016, paragraphs 635-637; 667-670; 675-690; 834

Ioannis Kardassopoulos v. The Republic of Georgia, ICSID Case No. ARB/05/18

Decision on Jurisdiction, 6 July 2007, paragraph 110; 121-124; 194; 223; 247-248

Khan Resources Inc., Khan Resources B.V. and CAUC Holding Company Ltd. v. Government of Mongolia, UNCITRAL

Decision on Jurisdiction, 25 July 2012, paragraphs 382-385; 420

Libananco Holdings Co. Limited v. Republic of Turkey, ICSID Case No. ARB/06/8

Award, 2 September 2011, paragraphs 530-538

Liman Caspian Oil BV and NCL Dutch Investment BV v. Republic of Kazakhstan, ICSID Case No. ARB/07/14 

Excerpts of Award, 22 June 2010, Paragraphs 181-182; 193-194

Mamidoil Jetoil Greek Petroleum Products Societe S.A. v. Republic of Albania, ICSID Case No. ARB/11/24

Award, 30 March 2015, paragraphs 285-288; 293-294; 372-378; 465

Masdar Solar & Wind Cooperatief U.A. v. Kingdom of Spain, ICSID Case No. ARB/14/1

Award, 16 May 2018, paragraphs 170-176; 200-201; 316

Nykomb Synergetics Technology Holding AB v. The Republic of Latvia, SCC

Award, 16 December 2003, paragraph 4.3.3(d)

Petrobart Limited v. The Kyrgyz Republic, SCC Case No. 126/2003

Award, 29 March 2005, page 70-72

Plama Consortium Limited v. Republic of Bulgaria, ICSID Case No. ARB/03/24

Decision on Jurisdiction, 8 February 2005, paragraphs 123; 124-128; 129-130

RREEF Infrastructure (G.P.) Limited and RREEF Pan-European Infrastructure Two Lux S.à r.l. v. Kingdom of Spain, ICSID Case No. ARB/13/30

Decision on Jurisdiction, 6 June 2016, paragraphs 142-147; 156-159

Veteran Petroleum Limited (Cyprus) v. Russian Federation, PCA Case No. AA 228 

Interim Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility, 30 November 2009, paragraphs 385; 412-413; 430-432

Final Award, 18 July 2014, paragraphs 1349-1351; 1355, 1358-1363; 1370-1372

Yukos Universal Limited (Isle of Man) v. Russian Federation, PCA Case No. AA 227

Interim Award on Jurisdiction and Admissibility, 30 November 2009, paragraphs 385; 412-413; 430-432

Final Award, 18 July 2014, paragraphs 1349-1351; 1355, 1358-1363; 1370-1372